Managing Ovarian Cysts to Improve Fertility Outcomes

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Ovarian Cysts

Pelvic pain can be an early warning sign of an ovarian cyst, which can cause numerous complications in your body. The cysts can be described as a sac filled with fluids and other semi-solid materials originating at either one of the ovaries in a female. The problem can often be traced back to the menstrual cycle, as it can appear when you have not gone through menopause. 

One of the major concerns for patients diagnosed with ovarian cysts is their effect on fertility. While some forms of cysts disrupt the process, there are other aspects of the condition that most people should be aware of other aspects of the condition before getting diagnosed. This article contains everything about ovarian cysts and outlines how to manage them better to improve fertility outcomes. 

What are the different types of ovarian cysts?

The list below includes a total of three types of functional ovarian cysts that can affect women. It is worth noting that they are not disruptive. 

  • Follicular cysts: Typically occur due to an unreleased premature egg in an ovarian follicle. The condition arises when your follicle-stimulating hormones go haywire, obstructing ovulation. 
  • Corpus luteal cysts: When an empty egg sac gets filled with fluids, it causes Corpus luteal cysts. Although the empty sac should shed in a normal reproductive process, it might not thoroughly flush out, leading to Corpus luteal cysts. 
  • Theca lutein cysts: Hormone therapies can exhibit various side effects, and one of them includes cysts. It usually arises when ovulation stimulants cause rapid growth in the ovaries. 

What are the signs of ovarian cysts? 

Although most of the cysts do not cause any symptoms, the following complications might arise requiring surgeries:

  • Extreme pelvic pain 
  • Hemorrhage 
  • Ovary torsion
  • Infertility

Age is one of the leading factors in any of the specified cyst complications. In extreme cases, it can also cause ovarian cancer in extreme cases, especially when someone has crossed their reproductive years.

How do ovarian cysts affect fertility?

Most cysts heal without causing disruption to the natural cycle of fertility. That said, the ones that do not heal may affect your conception ability. Here is how ovarian cysts cause infertility:

  • When it structurally blocks the organs involved in pregnancy. 
  • In some cases, cysts cause an imbalance in your hormones, which disrupts their relay. Due to this, the stimulation in the ovary is lost, resulting in unreleased eggs. 

Overall, it adversely affects the reproductive system, making it difficult to conceive. 

What type of ovarian cysts affect fertility? 

Endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome are disruptive conditions that adversely affect fertility. The following section details everything about the specified conditions.


Endometriosis is caused when endometrial tissue extends to the outer parts of the uterus. The cysts appearing with endometriosis are darker in color and protrude individually into two types, listed below: 

  • Less aggressive cysts surround the membrane of the pelvic organs. 
  • Severe condition with hostility towards the existing functional cysts. 

The following are a few signs of Endometriosis to look out for: 

    • Painful sexual intercourse
    • Extreme period pain radiating to the stomach and heavy flows
    • Discomfort while using the washroom
    • Painful bowel movements 

Luckily for those suffering from the condition, it is treatable, and we recommend they consult a medical professional to receive a proper diagnosis and treatment. 


Polycystic ovary syndrome

Another condition causing reproductive problems is Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It is a hormonal disorder that appears when the ovaries produce excess androgens, a male hormone. Naturally, it disrupts the functionality of the ovary, including its ability to conceive, and further contributes to the following problems:

  • Multiple ovarian cysts
  • Excess androgen secretion
  • Obstructs ovulation, disrupting the menstrual cycle

Note that PCOS does not always cause ovarian cysts, however, it shows the following symptoms: 

  • Irregular menstrual cycles 
  • Swelling inside the ovaries 
  • Excess oil secretion from the skin
  • Noticeable body hair growth 
  • Weight gain 

PCOS can further leave you at risk of acquiring the comorbidities listed below: 

  • Sleeplessness and sleep apnea 
  • Heart diseases
  • Mental health problems leading to various disorders 
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Infertility

Unfortunately, PCOS is not completely curable but can be kept under control with lifestyle changes and medications. With proper care, a person with PCOS can definitely reproduce. 

Risk factors and treatment options for Ovarian cysts

There are quite a few risk factors involved with ovarian cysts. While aging is certainly a contributing factor, other conditions are listed below: 

  • In several cases, fertility treatments lead to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, in which hormonal therapy has an excess effect on your body. It further contributes to the development of a cyst.
  • Ovarian cysts can also develop during pregnancy. In fact, many pregnant women have reported having acquired the condition in their second trimester due to an excess secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin hormones. 
  • It should come as no surprise that environmental toxins are the biggest contributing factor to a lot of medical problems in our bodies. Likewise, toxins from cigarette smoke can be an underlying cause of an ovarian cyst. 

Fortunately, modern medical advancement has come to a stage where ovarian cysts can be treated. However, the treatment may vary based on the following factors: 

  • Age
  • Status of menopause
  • Size, quality, and quantity of the cyst
  • Condition of the cyst, as pain and discomfort indicate a rupture. 

Considering all the above factors, your doctor will recommend medication. In the case of a ruptured cyst causing severe pain, they might suggest surgery to remove it, followed by careful monitoring and pain medication. 

Surgical procedures such as cystectomy do not require the removal of the ovary, whereas the specified part is removed alongside the cyst in the case of oophorectomy surgery. In contrast, laparoscopy boasts a less invasive surgery where the ovarian cyst is removed with a laparoscope and instruments through a small incision in the abdomen. 

Endoworld (US) has all the solutions for your infertility problems, as they have a dedicated and experienced team of highly qualified doctors. They provide comprehensive treatments and robust infertility management that are of world-class quality.

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Dr. Pandit Palaskar

Dr. Pandit Palaskar is one of the best IVF doctors in India. He has vast experience of 20+ years with thousands of cases performed in the fields of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Infertility.

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Endoworld Hospital is a 100 bedded Ultramodern Superspeciality Hospital dedicated to Gynecological endoscopy, Infertility management, Neonatal and pediatric care. One of the largest mother & child care hospital in private setup in India, providing health services to every class of society. Dedicated & experienced team of highly qualified doctors is available at your service.

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