Male Reproductive Organs: Functions, Problems, and Treatment

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Male Reproductive Organs

Male Reproductive OrgansThe male reproductive system consists of a group of organs that work together to make a man’s reproductive and urinary system. Unlike the female body, most of the male reproductive organs are located outside the body. Male reproductive system functions include manufacturing and secreting male hormones and sperm. This article discusses the different types of male reproductive organs, their functions, as well as their problems and prevention.

Male reproductive organs

External reproductive organs


The penis is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It consists of three parts: The root, the part of the penis that attaches to the wall of the abdomen, the body or shaft, and the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis.


The scrotum is another male reproductive organ that hangs behind the penis. It holds the testicles, as well as many nerves and blood vessels. Scrotums are responsible for protecting the testicles and providing a sort of climate control system.


Testicles, also known as testes, are two oval-shaped glands responsible for producing male sex hormones and sperms. Testes are contained within the scrotum.


The Epididymis is a narrow, tightly-coiled tube present on the posterior of each testicle. Its function is to carry and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. In addition, Epididymis brings the sperm to maturity because the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization.

Internal reproductive organs

Vas deferens

Vas deferens, also known as ductus deferens, is a muscular long tube that runs from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity. The job of vas deferens is to transport mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.

Ejaculatory ducts

Ejaculatory ducts rest on each side of the prostate gland. Each of them is about two centimeters in length and is formed when the seminal vesicle’s duct merges with the vas deferens. Ejaculatory ducts are responsible for delivering sperm into the urethra, adding secretions and additives from the prostate necessary for sperm function while providing an interface between the reproductive and urinary systems in men.


The urethra is a tube that extends from the bladder to the external opening at the end of the penis. It is a channel that carries the sperm to the outside of the body through the penis.

Seminal vesicles

Seminal vesicles are sac-like glands that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The function of seminal vesicles is to make a sugar-rich fluid that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps it with motility.

Prostate gland

The prostate gland is a chestnut-shaped gland located between the bladder and the penis. The prostate secretes fluid that nurtures and protects sperm.

Bulbourethral glands

The bulbourethral glands, also known as Cowper’s gland, are a pair of pea-shaped glands located near the base of the penis. Their function is to add fluids to semen during the process of ejaculation.

Male reproductive Conditions

Some male reproductive problems are discussed below:

Lack of testosterone

Also known as hypogonadism, it is a condition that occurs when the testicles don’t make enough testosterone. The symptoms of lack of testosterone include erectile dysfunction, reduced bone mass, and decreased sex drive.

Premature ejaculation

IT is one of the serious male reproductive problems. Premature ejaculation is the most common type of sexual dysfunction in men younger than 40. In this condition, the emission of semen takes place just before or shortly after beginning sexual intercourse.

Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is a condition that occurs when cancerous cells develop in the tissues of a testicle. However, it is a curable disease that occurs mostly in men aged 20 to 35.

Prostate problems

Common prostate problems include prostatitis (a bacterial inflammation in the prostate), enlarged prostate, and prostate cancer.

Peyronie’s disease

Peyronie’s disease causes scar tissue, or a hard lump, to form inside the penis. It leads to curved and painful erections. It generally improves on its own without treatment in 6 to 15 months.

Treatments For Male Reproductive Problems

Sperm banking

Also known as sperm cryopreservation, sperm banking is the process of freezing and storing sperm. In this process, sample semen is stored and examined under a microscope in the laboratory to find out how healthy they are so that they can be used in the future for artificial insemination or in-vitro fertilization.

Testicular sperm extraction(TESE)

Testicular sperm extraction is a surgical procedure recommended when the naturally produced sperm is not healthy, and the man is unable to father a child. In this process, a small portion of tissue is removed from the testicle, and viable sperm cells are extracted from that.


Surgery to treat male infertility involves correcting problems associated with the pelvic anatomy and removing fibroids that misshape the uterine activity or removing the pelvic or uterine adhesions. For men, this can include vasectomy reversal, tissue biopsies, varicocele treatment, and microsurgical procedures to obtain sperms.

Endoworld Hospital in Aurangabad is one of the best IVF centers in Maharashtra. It is an exclusive center of excellence and the first super specialty center in India for women. Our healthcare facilities are well-equipped with advanced technology to support better treatment of patients. Contact us today!

Dr. Pandit Palaskar

Dr. Pandit Palaskar

Dr. Pandit Palaskar is one of the best IVF doctors in India. He has vast experience of 20+ years with thousands of cases performed in the fields of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Infertility.

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